Manning - who was born a male and formerly named Bradley Manning - was given a 35-year sentence by a military judge in 2013 for leaking the largest cache of classified documents in American history.
In a letter following her arrest, Manning stated she believed the public was incapable of deciding what United States military policies and actions were justifiable "if they don't even know the most rudimentary details about them and their effects".
In a statement posted on Twitter on Thursday, Manning said she expected to be detained for her refusal to answer questions. Her attorneys also said she had suffered in solitary confinement and was denied proper medical and health care.
Manning, who transitioned while incarcerated, was subpoenaed to appear before a federal grand jury to disclose information about her connection and communication with WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange. "My legal team continues to challenge the secrecy of these proceedings, and I am prepared to face the consequences of my refusal".
Her sentence was the longest given for a leak in U.S. history.
"Obviously prison is a bad place", Meltzer-Cohen said. In a statement before Friday's hearing, she said she invoked her First, Fourth and Sixth amendment protections when she appeared before the grand jury in Alexandria on Wednesday.
"I think it's quite likely", Meltzer-Cohen said.
Outside the courthouse, about 10 protesters rallied in her support.
Assange has been living at the Ecuadorian Embassy in London for the past seven years.
Prosecutors in Alexandria have always been investigating Wikileaks.
According to Law & Crime, the case that Manning's testimony was requested for is being handled by the US Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of Virginia, the very same US attorney's office that previously accidentally pasted language referring to possible criminal charges against WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange into legal documents about a separate case.
Chelsea Manning speaks at the South by Southwest festival in Austin, Texas, U.S., March 13, 2018.
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