Saudi Consul-General Mohammad al-Otaibi told Reuters on Saturday that the consulate's own security cameras showed only a live stream and did not record footage, so they could not provide evidence of Khashoggi's movements.
The image released by the Post bore a date and date stamp.
Turkey believes Khashoggi was killed after entering the building and claim the day he vanished 15 Saudi nationals arrived at an airport in Istanbul in planes belonging to a Riyadh-based company and visited the consulate before returning home.
The 59-year-old former government adviser visited the consulate on Tuesday to obtain paperwork to marry his Turkish fiancee, Hatice Cengiz, who was reportedly waiting outside the building for him.
The Trump family - in particular the president's son-in-law, Jared Kushner - has established a close bond with Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman. Salman said Turkish officials were welcome to search the building, insisting, "We have nothing to hide". Though wary of each other, Saudi Arabia and Turkey have traditionally tried to avoid public spats.
He has also criticized Saudi Arabia's role in Yemen, where Riyadh leads a military coalition fighting alongside the government in its war with Iran-backed rebels.
He had been living since past year in the United States, in a self-imposed exile, in part due to the rise of Prince Mohammed, the son of King Salman.
"I am following it up as the President of the Turkish Republic", Erdogan told reporters in Ankara on Sunday, while confirming that he had known Khashoggi for some time and considered him a friend. The private Turkish broadcaster, NTV, reported on Monday that police had requested access to the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul.
The incident has angered rights activists and press freedom advocates, who have called on the Saudi government to clarify Khashoggi's whereabouts. "The consulate officials can not save themselves by simply saying "he has left", Erdogan told a news conference in Budapest, where he is on an official visit.
"Do you not have cameras and everything of the sort?" "The consulate officials can not save themselves by simply saying 'he has left, '" the Turkish president added. Then why do you not prove this?
Turkey's foreign ministry summoned the Saudi ambassador to urge "full cooperation" in the investigation into Khashoggi's disappearance, the official Anadolu news agency said on Monday.
"The worrying trend that we see is a crackdown on critical and independent journalism in Saudi and about Saudi", Robert Mahoney, Deputy Executive Director of CPJ, told CBS News' Pamela Falk.
The ministry said that Turkey is carrying out the search in line with the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations as the host country and with the permission of the Saudi diplomatic mission chief. The bigger question in some ways for Saudi Arabia is, what impact does this have on foreign businesses looking to or had been thinking about investing in the kingdom?
"The United States must now make a concerted effort to determine all the facts about Mr Khashoggi's disappearance", the Post said in an editorial, imploring Washington to "demand answers, loud and clear".
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