The Times of Israel notes Khamenei's outline on his English Twitter account as to why negotiations are out of the question, in which he calls the USA government a "duplicitous" one that uses a bait-and-switch-style "formula" during talks.
"Not that sanctions don t have an impact, but the main factor is how we handle them", he added.
There have been widespread protests and strikes in recent weeks over high prices, unemployment and structural failures in the economy.
"Our will to enhance our defense power in all fields will increase if the pressure mounts on Iran", Defence Minister Brigadier General Amir Hatami said after unveiling the "fully home-made precision-guided" missile.
Khamenei, whose remarks on Monday come amid a sharp fall in the rial currency that has prompted angry protests, criticized the government of President Hassan Rouhani, a pragmatist cleric who championed the 2015 deal aimed at ending Iran's political and economic isolation. State broadcaster IRIB said the new Fateh Mobin missile had "successfully passed its tests" and could hit targets on land and sea.
He referred specifically to the collapse in the currency, which has lost around half its value since April.
Khamenei approved a written request from the head of the judiciary, Sadegh Larijani, to set up special revolutionary courts to try people quickly for economic crimes.
"If our performance is better, more prudent, timely and effective, sanctions will not have that much effect and can be resisted", he added. "The corrupt people (officials) should be punished firmly", Khamenei said told a gathering attended by thousands of Iranians, state TV reported.
A significant cut in oil sales is also expected when the USA reimposes a second phase of sanctions in November - with some analysts estimating a drop of 700,000 barrels per day from its current level of 2.3 million.
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