Bueno shot to global fame when she claimed her maiden grand slam at Wimbledon in 1959 and her second at the US Nationals two months later.
Tributes for the tennis great poured in on Twitter on Friday evening.
The Nove de Julho hospital confirmed Bueno's death on Friday and said she had been admitted for "oncological treatment".
FILE PHOTO: Former Brazilian great Maria Esther Bueno, victor of 19 Grand Slam singles and doubles titles from 1959-68, plays during a tennis exhibition on Copacabana beach in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil December 10, 2005.
Brazilian President Michel Temer tweeted that Bueno "will always be remembered as the number one of tennis in the hearts of all Brazilians".
Another doubles partner was Billie Jean King, with whom she won the Wimbledon title in 1965.
"I think what she did on the court with courage and determination is what she did with the illness until the end, until the last days", he said.
Former Brazilian great Maria Esther Bueno, victor of 19 Grand Slam singles and doubles titles from 1959-68, plays during a tennis exhibition on Copacabana beach in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil December 10, 2005.
Bueno's last major title came in 1968 when she won the doubles title at the U.S. Open alongside Margaret Court one of her biggest rivals in singles. These included Wimbledon singles titles in 1959, 1960 and 1964, and the US National Championship - precursor to today's US Open - in 1959, 1963, 1964 and 1966.
Always smiling in her television appearances, Bueno continued playing until a year ago, when she was stricken by disease.
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