People the U.S. sanctioned on Friday include Ayatollah Sadegh Amoli Larijani, the head of Iran's judiciary whose brother, Ali Larijani, leads Iran's parliament.
Trump said:"This is a last chance".
Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi told Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif by phone that implementation of the deal had not been "derailed" but would face "some new complicating factors", the state news agency Xinhua reported.
"This could be one of Washington's big foreign policy mistakes, a big miscalculation in American policy", he said. But there will be strings attached, they said.
In case the decision is implemented, it will "affect greatly the worldwide situation, the regional affairs, and will affect the system of multilateral agreements and further strengthening of the global regime of non-proliferation", the deputy foreign minister said.
A senior USA administration official said Friday that Trump wants the Iran deal strengthened with a follow-on agreement in 120 days or the United States will unilaterally withdraw from the global pact.
Trump had faced a Friday deadline to decide on whether to waive the sanctions.
The sanctions are related to "serious human rights" abuses, censorship, and weapons issues, a Treasury Department spokesperson said.
And while Trump approved a sanctions waiver, he also chose to impose new, targeted sanctions on Iran, the person said. Nevertheless, many other restrictions, for instance over Iranian ballistic missiles, remained in place. During Barack Obama's presidency, these penalties largely cut Iran out of the worldwide financial system, until they were suspended under the nuclear deal. It saw Iran agree to reduce uranium enrichment activity drastically, dispose of its enriched uranium stocks and modify a heavy water facility so it could not produce material suitable for a nuclear bomb. "It's going to be complicated to save the deal after this", said one European diplomat, speaking on condition of anonymity.
Russia, which is also a signatory to the JCPOA, said on Saturday the USA would be making a grave mistake by pulling out of Iran's nuclear deal and underlined Moscow's determination to keep the landmark accord intact.
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